Ranked-Choice Voting in This Year’s Elections Brought Historic Wins for Women

Ranked-choice voting means more women run for office and win.

Crystal Hudson of the New York City council; Neslie Yang of St. Paul; and Kimberly Wilburn of Minnetonka.

As of this month, 46 cities have adopted ranked-choice voting (RCV)—also known as instant runoff voting, which allows voters to rank candidates in order of preference. (Ballots that do not help voters’ top choices win, count for their next choice.) During this month’s elections, 11 of these RCV cities across six states held elections, and RCV has proven once again to yield positive outcomes for women. 

For the past five years, RepresentWomen has been building up our research on reforms and policies that lead to increased and sustained women’s representation in elected office. Excitingly, year after year, our findings have remained consistent, and this year is no exception: Ranked-choice voting means more women run for office and win. While progress toward gender balance is generally slow and uneven, historic wins for women in RCV cities show that, with systems strategies, not only is change possible, it’s happening in real time. 

RepresentWomen’s work seeks to bridge the gap between the women’s representation movement and the democracy reform movement by showing the link between systems strategies such as ranked-choice voting and increased opportunities for women in politics.

What Is Rcv, and How Does It Benefit Women?

In RCV elections, voters rank candidates in order of preference. Once the polls close, all first-choice votes are counted. If a candidate receives a majority of the vote, they are declared the winner. But, if no candidate receives a majority of votes, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, and those votes are transferred to the voters’ second-choice candidate. So, if your first-choice candidate is eliminated, your vote stays in play and is rolled to your second choice, and so on, until a candidate crosses the majority threshold.

RCV creates opportunities for women to enter politics for several reasons:

  1. Because voters rank candidates in order of preference, RCV eliminates vote splitting, dismantling the idea that women should “wait their turn” to avoid spoiling an election. 
  2. Since candidates compete for second and third-choice votes, RCV encourages coalition building and civil, issue-focused campaigns. This makes running for office less toxic and more appealing for nontraditional candidates such as women.
  3. RCV is more cost-effective. Without the need for runoff elections or negative smear campaigns for opponents, RCV levels the playing field, as women often need to out-raise and outspend men to win.

Historic Wins for Women Under RCV


Of the 11 cities that held RCV elections this cycle, six cities had RCV-viable (meaning three or more candidates) races with women candidates.

In RCV-viable city council races, women consisted of roughly 40 percent of the total candidates and won 68 percent of the seats.

Under RCV, Cambridge, Mass.; Portland, Maine; Minneapolis; and New York City elected women-majority councils. In NYC, the majority of those women are women of color (for the second time in a row).

City councils that have women-majorities are few and far between. Even fewer are city councils with only women members. Yet this year, we had not one, but two cities elect all women city councils: For the first time in history, St. Paul’s council and Minnetonka’s council will be all women. What do these two cities have in common? Both use ranked-choice voting for their elections. (If you’re curious what the St. Paul city council looked like before it started using RCV, check out this news archive.) 


In Santa Fe, N.M., the city council race showed us how RCV can help level the playing field.

Despite being well outspent by her primary opponent, Alma Castro won over 50 percent of votes after three rounds of vote tabulation, with second- and third-choice rankings playing a crucial role.

Kathleen Rivera, eliminated in the second round, told the Santa Fe New Mexican that the “woman vote” played a key role: Numerous Rivera women voters said they wanted to vote a woman into office, thus ranking Castro second. 

Following the Nov. 7 elections, women now make up 52 percent of RCV-elected city councils (154 of 296 seats in 40 cities). The impact of RCV on women’s representation is undeniable.

Ranked-Choice Voting Ballot Measure Victories

Proportional RCV (PRCV), a form of ranked-choice voting where multiple winners are chosen in the same election to represent one district, was on the ballot and passed in three cities this election, all in Michigan: Kalamazoo, Royal Oak and East Lansing.

Voters across the country and across the aisle support RCV—despite efforts to repeal PRCV, like in Minnetonka, Minn. In Easthampton, Massachusetts, voters said yes (62%) to expanding their existing RCV system to allow multi-winner RCV. RCV has now won 27 city ballot measures in a row. 


Ballot initiatives like these pave the way for equal opportunity for women to run and win in 2024 and beyond because the impact on representation outcomes goes even deeper when using PRCV. This system has all of the benefits of RCV elections, where there is only one winner, but has additional opportunities for nontraditional candidates because multiple constituencies are able to elect candidates of choice in the same election


Currently used across five localities and even in Cambridge since 1941, PRCV has a strong and reputable history of delivering equitable outcomes for women and traditionally underserved groups, as highlighted in our research

A thriving democracy must be one with equal and equitable opportunities for all and must foster and sustain gender-balanced governance. In order to achieve this, it’s time we invest in system strategies and reforms that most effectively allow women to run, win, serve and lead. Head over to our website to learn more about how reforms, like ranked-choice voting, are building women’s political power.

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About and

Alissa Bombardier Shaw is the outreach associate for RepresentWomen. Follow her on Twitter @alissashaw_.
Steph Scaglia is research manager at RepresentWomen, a research and action hub that promotes the use of systems strategies to advance women’s representation and leadership in the U.S. and abroad. Follow her on Twitter @scagliasteph.